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Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 6856-6870; doi:10.3390/ijerph110706856
Article

Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

1,2
, 2,3,* , 1
, 2
 and 4
1 School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, No. 1 GeHu Road, Wu Jin District, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu,China 2 Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, No. 705, Yatai Road, Nanhu District, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang, China 3 Water Science and Technology Lab, No. 705, Yatai Road, Nanhu District, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang, China 4 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Science, No. 71, Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health)
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Abstract

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.
Keywords: pig slurry; luminescent bacteria; zebrafish; toxicity reduction pig slurry; luminescent bacteria; zebrafish; toxicity reduction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, W.; Cai, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, G.; Liang, Y. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 6856-6870.

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