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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(6), 6485-6493; doi:10.3390/ijerph110606485

Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

1
Department of Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan
2
Department of Developmental Social Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
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Abstract

Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%). The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4%–4.3%) and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%), respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering. View Full-Text
Keywords: abusive head trauma; shaken baby syndrome; shaking; smothering; child abuse; co-sleeping; crying; Japan abusive head trauma; shaken baby syndrome; shaking; smothering; child abuse; co-sleeping; crying; Japan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamada, F.; Fujiwara, T. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 6485-6493.

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