Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5445-5461; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505445
Article

Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

* ,
 and
Received: 1 April 2014; in revised form: 12 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Nature)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [446 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was found across all body systems. From a Public Health perspective, interdisciplinary work on utilizing benefits of Nature regarding health promotion, disease prevention, and nature-based therapy should be optimized in order to eventually diminish given methodological limitations from mono-disciplinary studies.
Keywords: blood pressure; brain activity; cardiovascular activity; cortisol; endocrine system; forest; heart rate; immune function; outdoor nature; physiology blood pressure; brain activity; cardiovascular activity; cortisol; endocrine system; forest; heart rate; immune function; outdoor nature; physiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Haluza, D.; Schönbauer, R.; Cervinka, R. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5445-5461.

AMA Style

Haluza D, Schönbauer R, Cervinka R. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):5445-5461.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate. 2014. "Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 5445-5461.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert