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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5431-5444; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505431
Article

Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

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Received: 7 March 2014; in revised form: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
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Abstract: County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.
Keywords: iodine; risk factors; spatial epidemiology; geographic information system iodine; risk factors; spatial epidemiology; geographic information system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, J.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Bian, J.; Jiang, W.; Wang, X.; Sun, L.; Jiang, Q. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5431-5444.

AMA Style

Gao J, Zhang Z, Hu Y, Bian J, Jiang W, Wang X, Sun L, Jiang Q. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):5431-5444.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu. 2014. "Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 5431-5444.



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