Abstract: This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles.
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Koivisto, A.J.; Palomäki, J.E.; Viitanen, A.-K.; Siivola, K.M.; Koponen, I.K.; Yu, M.; Kanerva, T.S.; Norppa, H.; Alenius, H.T.; Hussein, T.; Savolainen, K.M.; Hämeri, K.J. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5382-5402.
Koivisto AJ, Palomäki JE, Viitanen A-K, Siivola KM, Koponen IK, Yu M, Kanerva TS, Norppa H, Alenius HT, Hussein T, Savolainen KM, Hämeri KJ. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):5382-5402.
Koivisto, Antti J.; Palomäki, Jaana E.; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S.; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T.; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J. 2014. "Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 5382-5402.