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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4886-4904; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504886
Article

Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils

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1 Emerging Compounds Research Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung County 912, Taiwan 2 Division 5 of the Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Environmental Protection Administration, Zhongli, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan 3 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, National Yang-Ming University, Beitou Dist., Taipei City 112, Taiwan 4 Environmental Engineering Department Ⅱ, Sinotech Engineering Consultants, Ltd., Neihu Dist., Taipei City 114, Taiwan 5 MWH Americas Inc., Taiwan Branch, Daan Dist., Taipei City 106, Taiwan 6 Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Daan Dist., Taipei City 106, Taiwan 7 International College, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung County 912, Taiwan 8 Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Yanchao Dist., Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan 9 Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan 10 Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
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Abstract

Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p < 0.001), land use (β = 0.065, p < 0.001), soil brightness (β = 0.170, p < 0.001), and soil moisture (β = 0.051, p = 0.020), with adjusted R2 = 0.947 (p < 0.001) (n = 662). An univariate logistic regression analysis with the cut-off point of 33.4 pg-BEQ/g d.w. showed significant odds ratios (ORs) for soil sampling location (OR = 2.43, p < 0.001), land use (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001), and soil brightness (OR = 2.83, p = 0.009). In conclusion, four variables, including soil sampling location, land use, soil brightness, and soil moisture, may be related to soil-dioxin contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels.
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, D.-Y.; Lee, Y.-P.; Li, C.-P.; Chi, K.-H.; Liang, B.-W.P.; Liu, W.-Y.; Wang, C.-C.; Lin, S.; Chen, T.-C.; Yeh, K.-J.C.; Hsu, P.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chao, H.-R.; Tsou, T.-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4886-4904.

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