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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4886-4904; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504886
Article

Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils

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Received: 14 March 2014; in revised form: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
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Abstract: Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p < 0.001), land use (β = 0.065, p < 0.001), soil brightness (β = 0.170, p < 0.001), and soil moisture (β = 0.051, p = 0.020), with adjusted R2 = 0.947 (p < 0.001) (n = 662). An univariate logistic regression analysis with the cut-off point of 33.4 pg-BEQ/g d.w. showed significant odds ratios (ORs) for soil sampling location (OR = 2.43, p < 0.001), land use (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001), and soil brightness (OR = 2.83, p = 0.009). In conclusion, four variables, including soil sampling location, land use, soil brightness, and soil moisture, may be related to soil-dioxin contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels.
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, D.-Y.; Lee, Y.-P.; Li, C.-P.; Chi, K.-H.; Liang, B.-W.P.; Liu, W.-Y.; Wang, C.-C.; Lin, S.; Chen, T.-C.; Yeh, K.-J.C.; Hsu, P.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chao, H.-R.; Tsou, T.-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4886-4904.

AMA Style

Lin D-Y, Lee Y-P, Li C-P, Chi K-H, Liang B-WP, Liu W-Y, Wang C-C, Lin S, Chen T-C, Yeh K-JC, Hsu P-C, Hsu Y-C, Chao H-R, Tsou T-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):4886-4904.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Ding-Yan; Lee, Yi-Pin; Li, Chiu-Ping; Chi, Kai-Hsien; Liang, Bo-Wei P.; Liu, Wen-Yao; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Susana; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C.; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun. 2014. "Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 4886-4904.



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