Abstract: Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p < 0.001), land use (β = 0.065, p < 0.001), soil brightness (β = 0.170, p < 0.001), and soil moisture (β = 0.051, p = 0.020), with adjusted R2 = 0.947 (p < 0.001) (n = 662). An univariate logistic regression analysis with the cut-off point of 33.4 pg-BEQ/g d.w. showed significant odds ratios (ORs) for soil sampling location (OR = 2.43, p < 0.001), land use (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001), and soil brightness (OR = 2.83, p = 0.009). In conclusion, four variables, including soil sampling location, land use, soil brightness, and soil moisture, may be related to soil-dioxin contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels.
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey
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Lin, D.-Y.; Lee, Y.-P.; Li, C.-P.; Chi, K.-H.; Liang, B.-W.P.; Liu, W.-Y.; Wang, C.-C.; Lin, S.; Chen, T.-C.; Yeh, K.-J.C.; Hsu, P.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chao, H.-R.; Tsou, T.-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4886-4904.
Lin D-Y, Lee Y-P, Li C-P, Chi K-H, Liang B-WP, Liu W-Y, Wang C-C, Lin S, Chen T-C, Yeh K-JC, Hsu P-C, Hsu Y-C, Chao H-R, Tsou T-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):4886-4904.
Lin, Ding-Yan; Lee, Yi-Pin; Li, Chiu-Ping; Chi, Kai-Hsien; Liang, Bo-Wei P.; Liu, Wen-Yao; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Susana; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C.; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun. 2014. "Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 4886-4904.