Abstract: Objective: The present study investigates the use expectations, prevalence and frequency of neuroenhancement drug (ND) use among the Swiss male population, separating college students from others. Methods: Young Swiss men were invited to participate in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. A total of 5,967 participants responded to questions on six types of NDs (wakefulness medication, antidepressants, Alzheimer’s disease medication, Parkinson’s disease medication, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and beta-blockers). The frequency of use depending on five expectations (to enhance wakefulness, attention, memory, concentration and stress reduction) was analyzed for a twelve-month period. Results: (1) About 3% of the sample indicated use of at least one ND; (2) ADHD medication was the most prevalent; (3) The type of ND preferred differed depending on academic status (4). Quantitatively, over the year, college student users used ND much less frequently than other users. Conclusions: Prevalence of ND use is low in Switzerland relative to other countries such as the United States. Patterns of ND use differed depending on academic status, suggesting that while college student ND users tended to do so rarely (probably to enhance cognitive abilities for exams), non-college male users used other NDs more frequently (probably to “get high”).
Keywords: college students; expectations of use; neuroenhancement; prevalence; smart drugs
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Deline, S.; Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; N'Goran, A.A.; Dupuis, M.; Henchoz, Y.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.-B.; Gmel, G. Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3032-3045.
Deline S, Baggio S, Studer J, N'Goran AA, Dupuis M, Henchoz Y, Mohler-Kuo M, Daeppen J-B, Gmel G. Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):3032-3045.
Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; N'Goran, Alexandra A.; Dupuis, Marc; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard. 2014. "Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 3032-3045.