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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2958-2972; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302958

The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

1,* , 1,†
1 Department of Environmental Science, Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaicio G. 58, Kaunas, LT-44248, Lithuania 2 Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
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This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m) and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.
Keywords: city park proximity; blood pressure groups; women; GIS; multinomial regression analysis city park proximity; blood pressure groups; women; GIS; multinomial regression analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Grazuleviciene, R.; Dedele, A.; Danileviciute, A.; Vencloviene, J.; Grazulevicius, T.; Andrusaityte, S.; Uzdanaviciute, I.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2958-2972.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert