Next Article in Journal
Effect of a Brief Heat Exposure on Blood Pressure and Physical Performance of Older Women Living in the Community—A Pilot-Study
Previous Article in Journal
Associations between Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Neighbourhood Recreational Facilities: The Features of the Facilities Matter
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12611-12622; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212611

The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Kobe City Public Health Center, 6-5-1 Kano-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8570, Japan
Department of Biochemistry, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [740 KB, uploaded 5 December 2014]   |  


The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental caries; 3-year-olds; lifestyles; risk factors; cohort study; child’s bedtime dental caries; 3-year-olds; lifestyles; risk factors; cohort study; child’s bedtime

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, M.; Wang, D.-H.; Ijichi, A.; Shirai, C.; Zou, Y.; Kubo, M.; Takemoto, K.; Masatomi, C.; Ogino, K. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12611-12622.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top