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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12499-12513; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212499

Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

1,2
,
1,†
,
3,†
,
4,†
,
5,†
,
5,†
,
1,†
,
1,†
and
1,*
1
Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China
2
School of Nursing, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China
3
Department of Pediatrics, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
4
Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Changsha 410004, China
5
Changsha Central for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha 410001, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [710 KB, uploaded 1 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543) between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL) were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ≤10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively). Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; caregiver; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); children; gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS); cotinine smoking; caregiver; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); children; gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS); cotinine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; Yang, M.; Tian, L.; Huang, Z.; Chen, F.; Hu, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, G.; Xiao, S. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12499-12513.

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