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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11249-11260; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111249

Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons

Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA 94710, USA
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Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract

Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; aeration; dairy wastewater; aerators; manure; survival; decimal reduction times; Salmonella Enteritidis; Salmonella Montevideo; Salmonella Thompson Salmonella; aeration; dairy wastewater; aerators; manure; survival; decimal reduction times; Salmonella Enteritidis; Salmonella Montevideo; Salmonella Thompson
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ravva, S.V.; Sarreal, C.Z. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11249-11260.

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