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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10292-10309; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010292

Ecohealth Approach to Urban Waste Management: Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Health Risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

1
Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences de la Terre et des Ressources Minières, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire
2
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Frenace
3
International Livestock Research Institute, 17A Nguyen Khang Street, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
4
Centre for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, 138 Giang Vo Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
5
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 4002 Basel, Switzerland
6
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Basel, P.O. Box number, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
7
Sandec-Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, CH-8600, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 2 October 2014
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Abstract

Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d’Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1–3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ecohealth; risk factor; waste management; wastewater; tropical diseases; Côte d’Ivoire Ecohealth; risk factor; waste management; wastewater; tropical diseases; Côte d’Ivoire
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kouamé, P.K.; Dongo, K.; Nguyen-Viet, H.; Zurbrügg, C.; Lüthi, C.; Hattendorf, J.; Utzinger, J.; Biémi, J.; Bonfoh, B. Ecohealth Approach to Urban Waste Management: Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Health Risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10292-10309.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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