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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10125-10145; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010125

Chromium in Drinking Water: Association with Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

1
Lab of Public Health, Medical School, University of Patras, University Campus, Patras, GR 26504, Greece
2
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain
3
IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona 08003, Spain
4
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona 08002, Spain
5
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona 08005, Spain
6
National School of Public Health, Athens, GR 11521, Greece
7
Health Centre of Aliartos, Aliartos, GR 32001, Greece
8
Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Patras, University Campus, Patras, GR 26504, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
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Abstract

An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted in Greece to investigate health outcomes associated with long-term exposure to chromium via drinking water. The study population consisted of 304 participants. Socio-demographics, lifestyle, drinking water intake, dietary habits, occupational and medical history data were recorded through a personal interview. Physical examination and a motor test were carried out on the individuals. Total chromium concentrations were measured in blood and hair of the study subjects. Hematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters were determined in blood. Chromium in drinking water ranged from <0.5 to 90 μg·L−1 in all samples but one (220 μg·L−1), with a median concentration of 21.2 μg·L−1. Chromium levels in blood (median 0.32 μg·L−1, range <0.18–0.92 μg·L−1) and hair (median 0.22 μg·g−1, range 0.03–1.26 μg·g−1) were found within “normal range” according to the literature. Personal lifetime chromium exposure dose via drinking water, calculated from the results of the water analyses and the questionnaire data, showed associations with blood and hair chromium levels and certain hematological and biochemical parameters. Groups of subjects whose hematological or biochemical parameters were outside the normal range were not correlated with chromium exposure dose, except for groups of subjects with high triglycerides or low sodium. Motor impairment score was not associated with exposure to chromium. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromium oral consumption; chromium hair; chromium blood; health effects; epidemiological study; biomarkers of exposure and effect chromium oral consumption; chromium hair; chromium blood; health effects; epidemiological study; biomarkers of exposure and effect
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sazakli, E.; Villanueva, C.M.; Kogevinas, M.; Maltezis, K.; Mouzaki, A.; Leotsinidis, M. Chromium in Drinking Water: Association with Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10125-10145.

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