Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4132-4142; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094132
Article

The Performance of Children Prenatally Exposed to HIV on the A-Not-B Task in Kilifi, Kenya: A Preliminary Study

1 Neuroassessment, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast/KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Box 230, Kilifi 80108, Kenya 2 Department of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, Tilburg 5000 LE, The Netherlands 3 Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80125, Utrecht, Utrecht 3508 TC, The Netherlands 4 International Centre for Behavioral Studies, P.O. Box 34307, Mombasa 80118, Kenya 5 Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK 6 Department of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, Tilburg 5000 LE, The Netherlands 7 Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2013; in revised form: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
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Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate early executive functioning in young children from 6–35 months of age. The study involved 319 randomly selected children from the community, 17 HIV exposed but uninfected children and 31 HIV infected ARV-naive children. A variation of the A-not-B task was used. While there were no group differences in total correct, perseverative errors, nor maximum error run, a significant percentage of children were unable to complete the task as a consequence of the children becoming overtly distressed or refusing to continue. In a multivariate analysis we observed that the significant predictors of non-completion were HIV exposure (both infected and exposed) and being under 24 months of age. These patterns of results indicate that future work with a broader array of tasks need to look at the association of HIV and EF tasks and potential contribution of factors such as emotion regulation, persistence and motivation on performance on EF tasks.
Keywords: executive functions; A-not-B task; Kenya; children

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MDPI and ACS Style

Abubakar, A.; Holding, P.; Van Baar, A.; Newton, C.R.J.C.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Espy, K.A. The Performance of Children Prenatally Exposed to HIV on the A-Not-B Task in Kilifi, Kenya: A Preliminary Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4132-4142.

AMA Style

Abubakar A, Holding P, Van Baar A, Newton CRJC, Van de Vijver FJR, Espy KA. The Performance of Children Prenatally Exposed to HIV on the A-Not-B Task in Kilifi, Kenya: A Preliminary Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4132-4142.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abubakar, Amina; Holding, Penny; Van Baar, Anneloes; Newton, Charles. R.J.C.; Van de Vijver, Fons. J.R.; Espy, Kimberly A. 2013. "The Performance of Children Prenatally Exposed to HIV on the A-Not-B Task in Kilifi, Kenya: A Preliminary Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4132-4142.

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