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Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers
Department of Chemistry, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy
International Ph.D. Programme in Neuropharmacology, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy
Department of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy
Department of Senescence, Urological, and Neurological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania 95126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Abstract: Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.
Keywords: acrylamide; workers; neurotoxicity; neuropathy
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Pennisi, M.; Malaguarnera, G.; Puglisi, V.; Vinciguerra, L.; Vacante, M.; Malaguarnera, M. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3843-3854.
Pennisi M, Malaguarnera G, Puglisi V, Vinciguerra L, Vacante M, Malaguarnera M. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):3843-3854.
Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano. 2013. "Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 3843-3854.