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Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment
Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Abstract: Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h) with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.
Keywords: immunotoxicity assessment; cytokines; whole blood; immunosuppressant
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ai, W.; Li, H.; Song, N.; Li, L.; Chen, H. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3834-3842.
Ai W, Li H, Song N, Li L, Chen H. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):3834-3842.
Ai, Wenchao; Li, Haishan; Song, Naining; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming. 2013. "Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 3834-3842.