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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(6), 2271-2281; doi:10.3390/ijerph10062271
Article

Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

1,* , 2
, 2
, 2
 and 3
1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde 4000, Denmark 2 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, Søborg 2860, Denmark 3 Centre for Arctic Health and Unit for Cellular & Molecular Toxicology, Department of Public Health, Build. 1260, Bartholins Allé 2, Aarhus University, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
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Abstract

Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds.
Keywords: pesticides; gestational exposure; in vivo experiment; Wistar rats pesticides; gestational exposure; in vivo experiment; Wistar rats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bossi, R.; Vinggaard, A.M.; Taxvig, C.; Boberg, J.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2271-2281.

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