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Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde 4000, Denmark
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, Søborg 2860, Denmark
Centre for Arctic Health and Unit for Cellular & Molecular Toxicology, Department of Public Health, Build. 1260, Bartholins Allé 2, Aarhus University, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2013; in revised form: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Abstract: Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds.
Keywords: pesticides; gestational exposure; in vivo experiment; Wistar rats
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bossi, R.; Vinggaard, A.M.; Taxvig, C.; Boberg, J.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2271-2281.
Bossi R, Vinggaard AM, Taxvig C, Boberg J, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(6):2271-2281.
Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne M.; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C. 2013. "Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 6: 2271-2281.