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Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study
Taipei City Hospital, Songde Branch, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
Institute of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Institute of Allied Health Sciences and Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2012; in revised form: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.
Keywords: incinerator; breastfeeding; Taiwan Birth Cohort Study; TBCS-DI; PCC
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lung, F.-W.; Chiang, T.-L.; Lin, S.-J.; Shu, B.-C. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2241-2257.
Lung F-W, Chiang T-L, Lin S-J, Shu B-C. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(6):2241-2257.
Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching. 2013. "Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 6: 2241-2257.