Abstract: Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.
Keywords: welfare state regime; multilevel; global mental health; depression; gender
Export to BibTeX
MDPI and ACS Style
Chung, H.; Ng, E.; Ibrahim, S.; Karlsson, B.; Benach, J.; Espelt, A.; Muntaner, C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1324-1341.
Chung H, Ng E, Ibrahim S, Karlsson B, Benach J, Espelt A, Muntaner C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1324-1341.
Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles. 2013. "Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1324-1341.