Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(4), 1324-1341; doi:10.3390/ijerph10041324
Article

Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

1 Department of Health Care Management, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea 2 Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8, Canada 3 Institute for Work & Health, Toronto, ON M5G 2E9, Canada 4 Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden 5 Health Inequalities Research Group (GREDS), Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET), University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain 6 Public Health Agency of Barcelona (ASPB), Barcelona 08023, Spain 7 CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Barcelona 08036, Spain 8 Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2013; in revised form: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economical Determinants of Health)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [407 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 16 April 2013 16:25 CEST]
The original version is still available [312 KB, uploaded 28 March 2013 14:58 CET]
Abstract: Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.
Keywords: welfare state regime; multilevel; global mental health; depression; gender

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chung, H.; Ng, E.; Ibrahim, S.; Karlsson, B.; Benach, J.; Espelt, A.; Muntaner, C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1324-1341.

AMA Style

Chung H, Ng E, Ibrahim S, Karlsson B, Benach J, Espelt A, Muntaner C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1324-1341.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles. 2013. "Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1324-1341.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert