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Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries
Department of Health Care Management, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8, Canada
Institute for Work & Health, Toronto, ON M5G 2E9, Canada
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden
Health Inequalities Research Group (GREDS), Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET), University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain
Public Health Agency of Barcelona (ASPB), Barcelona 08023, Spain
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Barcelona 08036, Spain
Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2013; in revised form: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.
Keywords: welfare state regime; multilevel; global mental health; depression; gender
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chung, H.; Ng, E.; Ibrahim, S.; Karlsson, B.; Benach, J.; Espelt, A.; Muntaner, C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1324-1341.
Chung H, Ng E, Ibrahim S, Karlsson B, Benach J, Espelt A, Muntaner C. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1324-1341.
Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles. 2013. "Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1324-1341.