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Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach
Department of Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2013; Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Abstract: Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties.
Keywords: manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs); occupational exposure; environmental health and safety standards (EHS); emerging risk management; nonlinear programming; chance-constrained programming; uncertainty analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, S.-S.; Chen, Y.; Yang, F.-L. Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1231-1249.
Chen Z, Yuan Y, Zhang S-S, Chen Y, Yang F-L. Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1231-1249.
Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin. 2013. "Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1231-1249.