Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(3), 1048-1061; doi:10.3390/ijerph10031048
Article

Observational Studies and a Statistical Early Warning of Surface Ozone Pollution in Tangshan, the Largest Heavy Industry City of North China

1 College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China 3 Unit 93534 of PLA, Beijing 101212, China 4 College of Material Science, Hebei United University, Tangshan, Hebei 063009, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
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Abstract: Continuous measurements of surface ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) at an urban site (39°37′N, 118°09′E) in Tangshan, the largest heavy industry city of North China during summertime from 2008 to 2011 are presented. The pollution of O3 was serious in the city. The daily maximum 1 h means (O3_1-hr max) reached 157 ± 55, 161 ± 54, 120 ± 50, and 178 ± 75 μg/m3 corresponding to an excess over the standard rates of 21%, 27%, 10%, and 40% in 2008–2011, respectively. The total oxidant level (OX = O3 + NO2) was high, with seasonal average concentrations up to 100 μg/m3 in summer. The level of OX at a given location was made up of NOX-independent and NOX-dependent contributions. The independent part can be considered as a regional contribution and was about 100 μg/m3 in Tangshan. Statistical early warning analysis revealed that the O3 levels would exceed the standard rate by 50% on the day following a day when the daily average ozone concentration (O3_mean) exceeded 87 μg/m3 and the daily maximum temperature (T_max) exceeded 29 °C. The exceed-standard rate would reach 80% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 113 μg/m3 and 31 °C. Similarly, the exceed-standard rate would reach 100% when O3_mean and T_max exceeded 127 μg/m3 and 33 °C, respectively.
Keywords: Tangshan; ozone pollution; O3; nitrogen oxides; early warning; heavy industry city

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, P.; Xin, J.; Bai, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.; Liu, S.; Feng, X. Observational Studies and a Statistical Early Warning of Surface Ozone Pollution in Tangshan, the Largest Heavy Industry City of North China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1048-1061.

AMA Style

Li P, Xin J, Bai X, Wang Y, Wang S, Liu S, Feng X. Observational Studies and a Statistical Early Warning of Surface Ozone Pollution in Tangshan, the Largest Heavy Industry City of North China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):1048-1061.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Bai, Xiaoping; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Shigong; Liu, Shixi; Feng, Xiaoxin. 2013. "Observational Studies and a Statistical Early Warning of Surface Ozone Pollution in Tangshan, the Largest Heavy Industry City of North China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 1048-1061.

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