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Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077-1096
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(2), 717-728; doi:10.3390/ijerph10020717

Assessing Organ Doses from Paediatric CT Scans—A Novel Approach for an Epidemiology Study (the EPI-CT Study)

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1 International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150, Cours Albert Thomas, Lyon 69008, France 2 Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK·CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400, Belgium 3 Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, Østerås 1332, Norway 4 Public Research Center Henri Tudor, 29, Avenue John F. Kennedy, 1855, Luxembourg 5 Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere-Zahlbacher-Str 69, Mainz 55131, Germany 6 Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS 6120 Executive Blvd. EPS Rockville, MD 20852, USA 7 CAATS 43, Bd Maréchal Joffre, Bourg-La-Reine 92340, France 8 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, M9:01 SE-171, Stockholm 76, Sweden 9 University in Oslo, Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 1072 Blindern, Oslo 0316, Norway 10 Research Centre for Automatic Control, University of Lorraine, 34 cours Léopold, Nancy cedex 54052, France 11 Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, PRP-HOM/SER/UEM, BP 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92 262, France
This paper is an extended version of paper published in The Fourth International MELODI Workshop; Helsinki; Finland; 12–14 September 2012.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
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The increasing worldwide use of paediatric computed tomography (CT) has led to increasing concerns regarding the subsequent effects of exposure to radiation. In response to this concern, the international EPI-CT project was developed to study the risk of cancer in a large multi-country cohort. In radiation epidemiology, accurate estimates of organ-specific doses are essential. In EPI-CT, data collection is split into two time periods—before and after introduction of the Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) introduced in the 1990s. Prior to PACS, only sparse information about scanner settings is available from radiology departments. Hence, a multi-level approach was developed to retrieve information from a questionnaire, surveys, scientific publications, and expert interviews. For the years after PACS was introduced, scanner settings will be extracted from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) headers, a protocol for storing medical imaging data. Radiation fields and X-ray interactions within the body will be simulated using phantoms of various ages and Monte-Carlo-based radiation transport calculations. Individual organ doses will be estimated for each child using an accepted calculation strategy, scanner settings, and the radiation transport calculations. Comprehensive analyses of missing and uncertain dosimetry data will be conducted to provide uncertainty distributions of doses.
Keywords: paediatric computed tomography; organ dose reconstruction; scanner settings; leukaemia; cancer risk paediatric computed tomography; organ dose reconstruction; scanner settings; leukaemia; cancer risk
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Thierry-Chef, I.; Dabin, J.; Friberg, E.G.; Hermen, J.; Istad, T.S.; Jahnen, A.; Krille, L.; Lee, C.; Maccia, C.; Nordenskjöld, A.; Olerud, H.M.; Rani, K.; Rehel, J.-L.; Simon, S.L.; Struelens, L.; Kesminiene, A. Assessing Organ Doses from Paediatric CT Scans—A Novel Approach for an Epidemiology Study (the EPI-CT Study). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 717-728.

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