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Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
AbstractThe interactions between genes and the environment are now regarded as the most probable explanation for autism. In this review, we summarize the results of a metallomics study in which scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements were examined for 1,967 autistic children (1,553 males and 414 females aged 0–15 years-old), and discuss recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic roles of infantile mineral imbalances in the pathogenesis of autism. In the 1,967 subjects, 584 (29.7%) and 347 (17.6%) were found deficient in zinc and magnesium, respectively, and the incidence rate of zinc deficiency was estimated at 43.5% in male and 52.5% in female infantile subjects aged 0–3 years-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals were found to suffer from high burdens of aluminum, cadmium and lead, respectively, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic. High toxic metal burdens were more frequently observed in the infants aged 0–3 years-old, whose incidence rates were 20.6%, 12.1%, 7.5%, 3.2% and 2.3% for aluminum, cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury, respectively. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may be critical and induce epigenetic alterations in the genes and genetic regulation mechanisms of neurodevelopment in the autistic children, and demonstrate that a time factor “infantile window” is also critical for neurodevelopment and probably for therapy. Thus, early metallomics analysis may lead to early screening/estimation and treatment/prevention for the autistic neurodevelopment disorders.
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Yasuda, H.; Tsutsui, T. Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6027-6043.View more citation formats
Yasuda H, Tsutsui T. Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):6027-6043.Chicago/Turabian Style
Yasuda, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu. 2013. "Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 6027-6043.