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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 4560-4570; doi:10.3390/ijerph10104560
Article

Associations of Workplace Bullying and Harassment with Pain

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 22 July 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05). Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05). For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09) in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression.
Keywords: workplace bullying; harassment; depression; pain; prevalence ratio workplace bullying; harassment; depression; pain; prevalence ratio
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Takaki, J.; Taniguchi, T.; Hirokawa, K. Associations of Workplace Bullying and Harassment with Pain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4560-4570.

AMA Style

Takaki J, Taniguchi T, Hirokawa K. Associations of Workplace Bullying and Harassment with Pain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):4560-4570.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Hirokawa, Kumi. 2013. "Associations of Workplace Bullying and Harassment with Pain." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 4560-4570.


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