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Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women
University of Zaragoza, C/ Gran Vía, 2, Zaragoza 50005, Spain
ETEA-University of Córdoba, C/Escritor Castilla Aguayo, 4, Córdoba 14004, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2012; in revised form: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Abstract: This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model) on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands), whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands) are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.
Keywords: job demands-control-support model; job strain; gender; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM); multi-sample analysis
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Rivera-Torres, P.; Araque-Padilla, R.A.; Montero-Simó, M.J. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 375-389.
Rivera-Torres P, Araque-Padilla RA, Montero-Simó MJ. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(1):375-389.
Rivera-Torres, Pilar; Araque-Padilla, Rafael A.; Montero-Simó, María J. 2013. "Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 1: 375-389.