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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(1), 219-236; doi:10.3390/ijerph10010219
Article

Development of Software Sensors for Determining Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Waters

1
, 1
 and 2,*
Received: 27 November 2012; in revised form: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
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Abstract: Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations are important parameters to assess the quality of water bodies and are used as criteria to regulate the water quality of the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Korea. Therefore, continuous monitoring of TN and TP using in situ instruments is conducted nationwide in Korea. However, most in situ instruments in the market are expensive and require a time-consuming sample pretreatment step, which hinders the widespread use of in situ TN and TP monitoring. In this study, therefore, software sensors based on multiple-regression with a few easily in situ measurable water quality parameters were applied to estimate the TN and TP concentrations in a stream, a lake, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and WWTP effluent. In general, the developed software sensors predicted TN and TP concentrations of the WWTP effluent and CSOs reasonably well. However, they showed relatively lower predictability for TN and TP concentrations of stream and lake waters, possibly because the water quality of stream and lake waters is more variable than that of WWTP effluent or CSOs.
Keywords: software sensor; total nitrogen; total phosphorus; multiple linear regression software sensor; total nitrogen; total phosphorus; multiple linear regression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, E.; Han, S.; Kim, H. Development of Software Sensors for Determining Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Waters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 219-236.

AMA Style

Lee E, Han S, Kim H. Development of Software Sensors for Determining Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Waters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(1):219-236.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Eunhyoung; Han, Sanghoon; Kim, Hyunook. 2013. "Development of Software Sensors for Determining Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Waters." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 1: 219-236.



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