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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 3-11; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010003

Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells

1
Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH- Center for Environmental Health, School of Science and Technology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
2
Rheumatology Section, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery V.A. Hospital and Division of Rheumatology and Molecular Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2003 / Accepted: 20 November 2003 / Published: 29 February 2004
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Abstract

Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA), DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA) significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-κβ, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Iκ−Βα protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-κβ nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease.
Keywords: Xenoestrogens; IL-2; transcription; Jurkat T cells Xenoestrogens; IL-2; transcription; Jurkat T cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndebele, K.; Tchounwou, P.B.; McMurray, R.W. Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 3-11.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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