Abstract: Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA), DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA) significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-κβ, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Iκ−Βα protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-κβ nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease.
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Ndebele, K.; Tchounwou, P.B.; McMurray, R.W. Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 3-11.
Ndebele K, Tchounwou PB, McMurray RW. Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2004; 1(1):3-11.
Ndebele, Kenneth; Tchounwou, Paul B.; McMurray, Robert W. 2004. "Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 1, no. 1: 3-11.