Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1119-1132; doi:10.3390/md9061119
Article

Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Marine Biotechnology, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada, B.C., Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2011; in revised form: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
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Abstract: Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.
Keywords: Bacillus; probiotics; shrimp; functional feeds; soybean meal

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MDPI and ACS Style

Olmos, J.; Ochoa, L.; Paniagua-Michel, J.; Contreras, R. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1119-1132.

AMA Style

Olmos J, Ochoa L, Paniagua-Michel J, Contreras R. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(6):1119-1132.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia. 2011. "Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 6: 1119-1132.

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