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The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 7139 Végétaux marins et Biomolécules, Station Biologique F-29682, Roscoff, France
CNRS, UMR 7139 Végétaux marins et Biomolécules, Station Biologique F-29682, Roscoff, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2010; in revised form: 13 March 2010 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Abstract: Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.
Keywords: halogen speciation; brown algae; defense metabolites; haloperoxidases; biogeochemistry
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La Barre, S.; Potin, P.; Leblanc, C.; Delage, L. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 988-1010.
La Barre S, Potin P, Leblanc C, Delage L. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(4):988-1010.
La Barre, Stéphane; Potin, Philippe; Leblanc, Catherine; Delage, Ludovic. 2010. "The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta), Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 4: 988-1010.