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Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection
US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740, USA
US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2010; in revised form: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Abstract: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight (~319 Da) neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and nucleic acids is Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD) assays. This simple and rapid method typically uses a sandwich immunoassay format labeled with micrometer-diameter beads and has the novel capability of removing nonspecifically attached beads under controlled, fluidic conditions. This technique allows for near real-time, multiplexed analysis at levels of detection that exceed many of the conventional transduction methods (e.g., ELISAs). In addition, the large linear dynamic range afforded by FFD should decrease the need to perform multiple sample dilutions, a common challenge for food testing. By applying FFD assays to an inhibition immunoassay platform specific for TTX and transduction via low magnification microscopy, levels of detection of ~15 ng/mL and linear dynamic ranges of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude were achieved. The results from these studies on the first small molecule FFD assay, along with the impact to detection of seafood toxins, will be discussed in this manuscript.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; antibody inhibition assay; bioassay; Fluidic Force Discrimination; microbead labels
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yakes, B.J.; Etheridge, S.M.; Mulvaney, S.P.; Tamanaha, C.R. Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 565-576.
Yakes BJ, Etheridge SM, Mulvaney SP, Tamanaha CR. Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(3):565-576.
Yakes, Betsy Jean; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Tamanaha, Cy R. 2010. "Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 3: 565-576.