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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 565-576; doi:10.3390/md8030565

Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740, USA
US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin 2011)
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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight (~319 Da) neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and nucleic acids is Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD) assays. This simple and rapid method typically uses a sandwich immunoassay format labeled with micrometer-diameter beads and has the novel capability of removing nonspecifically attached beads under controlled, fluidic conditions. This technique allows for near real-time, multiplexed analysis at levels of detection that exceed many of the conventional transduction methods (e.g., ELISAs). In addition, the large linear dynamic range afforded by FFD should decrease the need to perform multiple sample dilutions, a common challenge for food testing. By applying FFD assays to an inhibition immunoassay platform specific for TTX and transduction via low magnification microscopy, levels of detection of ~15 ng/mL and linear dynamic ranges of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude were achieved. The results from these studies on the first small molecule FFD assay, along with the impact to detection of seafood toxins, will be discussed in this manuscript. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; antibody inhibition assay; bioassay; Fluidic Force Discrimination; microbead labels tetrodotoxin; antibody inhibition assay; bioassay; Fluidic Force Discrimination; microbead labels

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakes, B.J.; Etheridge, S.M.; Mulvaney, S.P.; Tamanaha, C.R. Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 565-576.

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