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Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 754-786; doi:10.3390/md7040754

Marine Pyrrolocarbazoles and Analogues: Synthesis and Kinase Inhibition

Laboratoire de Synthèse et Physicochimie de Molécules d’Intérêt Biologique, UMR CNRS 5068, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cédex 9, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloid Analogs)


Granulatimide and isogranulatimide are alkaloids obtained from marine sources which have been shown to inhibit cell-cycle G2-checkpoint, targeting more particularly checkpoint 1 kinase (Chk1). At a structural level, they possess a characteristic pyrrolocarbazole framework also shared by the well-known rebeccamycin and staurosporine microbial metabolites which have been described to inhibit topoisomerase I and diverse kinases, respectively. This review reports precisely on the synthesis and kinase inhibitory activities of pyrrolocarbazole-based analogues of granulatimide.
Keywords: granulatimide; isogranulatimide; pyrrolocarbazole; indolocarbazole; kinase inhibitor granulatimide; isogranulatimide; pyrrolocarbazole; indolocarbazole; kinase inhibitor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Deslandes, S.; Chassaing, S.; Delfourne, E. Marine Pyrrolocarbazoles and Analogues: Synthesis and Kinase Inhibition. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 754-786.

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