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Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 754-786; doi:10.3390/md7040754

Marine Pyrrolocarbazoles and Analogues: Synthesis and Kinase Inhibition

Laboratoire de Synthèse et Physicochimie de Molécules d’Intérêt Biologique, UMR CNRS 5068, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cédex 9, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloid Analogs)


Granulatimide and isogranulatimide are alkaloids obtained from marine sources which have been shown to inhibit cell-cycle G2-checkpoint, targeting more particularly checkpoint 1 kinase (Chk1). At a structural level, they possess a characteristic pyrrolocarbazole framework also shared by the well-known rebeccamycin and staurosporine microbial metabolites which have been described to inhibit topoisomerase I and diverse kinases, respectively. This review reports precisely on the synthesis and kinase inhibitory activities of pyrrolocarbazole-based analogues of granulatimide.
Keywords: granulatimide; isogranulatimide; pyrrolocarbazole; indolocarbazole; kinase inhibitor granulatimide; isogranulatimide; pyrrolocarbazole; indolocarbazole; kinase inhibitor

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deslandes, S.; Chassaing, S.; Delfourne, E. Marine Pyrrolocarbazoles and Analogues: Synthesis and Kinase Inhibition. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 754-786.

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