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Immunomodulatory Effects of Domoic Acid Differ Between In vivo and In vitro Exposure in Mice
Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA
Marine Biotoxins Program, NOAA/National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2008; in revised form: 8 December 2008 / Accepted: 15 December 2008 / Published: 22 December 2008
Abstract: The immunotoxic potential of domoic acid (DA), a well-characterized neurotoxin, has not been fully investigated. Phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation were evaluated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to assay direct vs indirect effects. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of DA (2.5 µg/g b.w.) and sampled after 12, 24, or 48 hr. In a separate experiment, leukocytes and splenocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 1, 10, or 100 µM DA. In vivo exposure resulted in a significant increase in monocyte phagocytosis (12-hr), a significant decrease in neutrophil phagocytosis (24-hr), a significant decrease in monocyte phagocytosis (48-hr), and a significant reduction in T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation (24-hr). In vitro exposure significantly reduced neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at 1 µM. B- and T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation were both significantly increased at 1 and 10 µM, and significantly decreased at 100 µM. Differences between in vitro and in vivo results suggest that DA may exert its immunotoxic effects both directly and indirectly. Modulation of cytosolic calcium suggests that DA exerts its effects through ionotropic glutamate subtype surface receptors at least on monocytes. This study is the first to identify DA as an immunotoxic chemical in a mammalian species.
Keywords: Domoic acid; immunotoxicity; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Levin, M.; Leibrecht, H.; Ryan, J.; Van Dolah, F.; De Guise, S. Immunomodulatory Effects of Domoic Acid Differ Between In vivo and In vitro Exposure in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 636-659.
Levin M, Leibrecht H, Ryan J, Van Dolah F, De Guise S. Immunomodulatory Effects of Domoic Acid Differ Between In vivo and In vitro Exposure in Mice. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(4):636-659.
Levin, Milton; Leibrecht, Heather; Ryan, James; Van Dolah, Frances; De Guise, Sylvain. 2008. "Immunomodulatory Effects of Domoic Acid Differ Between In vivo and In vitro Exposure in Mice." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 4: 636-659.