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Characterization of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Sea Surface Microlayer in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway
Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
SINTEF Industrial Biotechnology, SINTEF, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2008; in revised form: 25 November 2008 / Accepted: 27 November 2008 / Published: 1 December 2008
Abstract: The water surface microlayer is still poorly explored, although it has been shown to contain a high density of metabolically active bacteria, often called bacterioneuston. Actinomycetes from the surface microlayer in the Trondheim fjord, Norway, have been isolated and characterized. A total of 217 isolates from two separate samples morphologically resembling the genus Streptomyces have been further investigated in this study. Antimicrobial assays showed that about 80% of the isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against nonfilamentous fungus, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria. Based on the macroscopic analyses and inhibition patterns from the antimicrobial assays, the sub-grouping of isolates was performed. Partial 16S rDNAs from the candidates from each subgroup were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed. 7 isolates with identical 16S rDNA sequences were further studied for the presence of PKS type I genes. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the PKS gene fragments revealed that horizontal gene transfer between closely related species might have taken place. Identification of unique PKS genes in these isolates implies that dereplication can not be performed based solely on the 16S rDNA sequences. The results obtained in this study suggest that streptomycetes from the neuston population may be an interesting source for discovery of new antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Sea surface microlayer; streptomycetes; antimicrobial activity; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hakvåg, S.; Fjærvik, E.; Josefsen, K.D.; Ian, E.; Ellingsen, T.E.; Zotchev, S.B. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Sea Surface Microlayer in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 620-635.
Hakvåg S, Fjærvik E, Josefsen KD, Ian E, Ellingsen TE, Zotchev SB. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Sea Surface Microlayer in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(4):620-635.
Hakvåg, Sigrid; Fjærvik, Espen; Josefsen, Kjell D.; Ian, Elena; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Zotchev, Sergey B. 2008. "Characterization of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Sea Surface Microlayer in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 4: 620-635.