Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 456-479; doi:10.3390/md6030456
Review

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

1,2,* email, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 6 and 11
Received: 28 February 2008; in revised form: 24 July 2008 / Accepted: 19 August 2008 / Published: 21 August 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.
Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ciguatoxin; harmful algal bloom (HAB); treatment; human health; marine toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Friedman, M.A.; Fleming, L.E.; Fernandez, M.; Bienfang, P.; Schrank, K.; Dickey, R.; Bottein, M.-Y.; Backer, L.; Ayyar, R.; Weisman, R.; Watkins, S.; Granade, R.; Reich, A. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 456-479.

AMA Style

Friedman MA, Fleming LE, Fernandez M, Bienfang P, Schrank K, Dickey R, Bottein M-Y, Backer L, Ayyar R, Weisman R, Watkins S, Granade R, Reich A. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(3):456-479.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew. 2008. "Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 3: 456-479.

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