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Mar. Drugs, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2008), Pages 407-513

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Floridoside Extracted from the Red Alga Mastocarpus stellatus Is a Potent Activator of the Classical Complement Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 407-417; doi:10.3390/md6030407
Received: 7 December 2007 / Accepted: 5 June 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many biological properties of algae have been found to have useful applications in human health, particularly in the fields of oncology and immunology. Floridoside, extracted from the red alga Mastocarpus stellatus, has a structure similar to the xenoantigen Gal alpha 1-3 [...] Read more.
Many biological properties of algae have been found to have useful applications in human health, particularly in the fields of oncology and immunology. Floridoside, extracted from the red alga Mastocarpus stellatus, has a structure similar to the xenoantigen Gal alpha 1-3 Gal. This xenoantigen has been described to induce a high immune response in human xenografts and is mediated by natural anti-gal antibodies that activate the classical complement pathway. Based on this property, we analyzed the potential activities of floridoside on the immune system. We demonstrated that floridoside activates a complement cascade via the classical complement pathway, through the recruitment and activation of natural IgM. This algal molecule could represent an important step in the development of a potent new anticomplementary agent for use in therapeutic complement depletion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Purification, Characterization and in vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Proteins from Arca subcrenata Lischke
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 418-430; doi:10.3390/md6030418
Received: 2 February 2008 / Revised: 8 April 2008 / Accepted: 26 June 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two purified proteins G-6 and G-4-2 were obtained from Arca subcrenata Lischke using the homogenization, salting-out with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography techniques. The purity of G-6 and G-4-2 was over 96%, as measured by RP-HPLC. G-6 and G-4-2 [...] Read more.
Two purified proteins G-6 and G-4-2 were obtained from Arca subcrenata Lischke using the homogenization, salting-out with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography techniques. The purity of G-6 and G-4-2 was over 96%, as measured by RP-HPLC. G-6 and G-4-2 were measured by SDS-PAGE and IEF-PAGE to have molecular weights of 8.2 kDa and 16.0 kDa, and isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.1, respectively. The amino acid constituents of G-6 and G-4-2 were also determined. The existence of saccharides in G-6 was demonstrated by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. G-6 and G-4-2 inhibited the proliferation of human tumor cells in vitro. By MTT assay, the IC50 values of G-4-2 were 22.9 μg/mL, 46.1 μg/mL and 57.7 μg/mL against Hela, HL-60 and KB cell lines, respectively, and the IC50 value of G-6 against HL-60 cell line was measured to be 123.2 μg/mL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Smenospongine, a Sesquiterpene Aminoquinone from a Marine Sponge, Induces G1 Arrest or Apoptosis in Different Leukemia Cells
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 480-488; doi:10.3390/md6030480
Received: 23 January 2008 / Revised: 10 July 2008 / Accepted: 14 July 2008 / Published: 28 August 2008
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Abstract
Smenospongine, a sesquiterpene aminoquinone isolated from the marine sponge Dactylospongia elegans, was previously reported by us to induce erythroid differentiation and G1 phase arrest of K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of smenospongine on the [...] Read more.
Smenospongine, a sesquiterpene aminoquinone isolated from the marine sponge Dactylospongia elegans, was previously reported by us to induce erythroid differentiation and G1 phase arrest of K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of smenospongine on the cell cycles of other leukemia cells, including HL60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells by flow cytometric analysis. Smenospongine induced apoptosis dosedependently in HL60 and U937 cells. The smenospongine treatment increased expression of p21 and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb in K562 cells, suggesting the p21-Rb pathway play an important role in G1 arrest in K562 cells. However, the p21 promoter was not activated by the smenospongine treatment based on a luciferase assay using the transfected K562 cells. Smenospongine might induce p21 expression via another mechanism than transactivation of p21 promoter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of 19-epi-okadaic Acid, a New Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, by Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 489-495; doi:10.3390/md6030489
Received: 9 July 2008 / Revised: 10 August 2008 / Accepted: 26 August 2008 / Published: 28 August 2008
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Abstract
Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp. In this paper, we report on the detection and identification of [...] Read more.
Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp. In this paper, we report on the detection and identification of a new DSP toxin, the OA isomer 19-epi-okadaic acid (2) (19-epi-OA), isolated from cultures of Prorocentrum belizeanum, by determining its retention time (RT) and fragmentation pattern using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 431-455; doi:10.3390/md6030431
Received: 26 February 2008 / Revised: 17 June 2008 / Accepted: 24 June 2008 / Published: 12 July 2008
Cited by 79 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in [...] Read more.
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
Open AccessReview Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 456-479; doi:10.3390/md6030456
Received: 28 February 2008 / Revised: 24 July 2008 / Accepted: 19 August 2008 / Published: 21 August 2008
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there [...] Read more.
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
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Open AccessReview The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775). Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings.
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(3), 496-513; doi:10.3390/md6030496
Received: 12 March 2008 / Revised: 18 July 2008 / Accepted: 30 July 2008 / Published: 4 September 2008
PDF Full-text (124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) [...] Read more.
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775) which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)

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