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Mar. Drugs, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2006), Pages 274-297

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Possible Mechanism of Action of the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcotriol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 Mice
Mar. Drugs 2006, 4(4), 274-285; doi:10.3390/md404274
Received: 28 July 2006 / Accepted: 18 August 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (96 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sarcophine derivatives have been suggested to be chemopreventive in nature. One of its derivatives, Sarcotriol (ST), was investigated to study the skin cancer chemopreventive effects in female CD-1 mice. Three groups (control, promotion, initiation) of 30 female CD-1 mice each were taken. Carcinogenesis was initiated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). One hour before treating with DMBA (200 nmol/100 μl acetone), control and promotion groups were treated with acetone (100 μl) and initiation group with ST (30μg/100μl of acetone). Beginning one week after initiation with DMBA, control and initiation groups were treated with acetone and promotion group with ST (30μg/100μl of acetone), one hour before treating with TPA (5 nmol/100 μl acetone). This was carried out twice a week for the next 20 weeks. The effects of ST on 3H-thymidine incorporation in epidermal DNA, the possible role of apoptotic proteins and COX-2 involved in the prevention of skin tumor development of CD-1 mice were investigated. Tumor incidence and multiplicity was found to be 100%, 73%, 100% and 8.2, 4.8, 9.7 in control, promotion and initiation groups respectively. ST treatment resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in epidermal DNA. The promotion group showed higher levels of caspase-3, -8 and –9 compared to the control. COX-2 expression was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the promotion group as compared to the control. No significant difference in caspase-3, -8, -9 and COX-2 levels were observed in the initiation group compared to control. Together, this study confirms the chemopreventive effects of ST, and for the first time identifies the stage of carcinogenesis at which ST exerts its chemopreventive effect, and elucidates the mechanism possibly by inducing apoptosis and decreasing the COX-2 levels, contributing to its overall cancer chemopreventive effects in the mouse skin cancer model. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Synthesis of Acetylhomoagmatine
Mar. Drugs 2006, 4(4), 286-289; doi:10.3390/md404286
Received: 12 July 2006 / Accepted: 18 August 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (50 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The first total synthesis of acetylhomoagmatine, a natural product isolated form the methanolic extracts from the sponge Cliona celata, is performed in four steps in a very high yield. Full article
Open AccessArticle Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae
Mar. Drugs 2006, 4(4), 290-297; doi:10.3390/md404290
Received: 19 September 2006 / Accepted: 31 October 2006 / Published: 1 November 2006
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (47 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of [...] Read more.
Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit. Full article

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