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A Possible Mechanism of Action of the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcotriol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 Mice
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2006; Accepted: 18 August 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
Abstract: Sarcophine derivatives have been suggested to be chemopreventive in nature. One of its derivatives, Sarcotriol (ST), was investigated to study the skin cancer chemopreventive effects in female CD-1 mice. Three groups (control, promotion, initiation) of 30 female CD-1 mice each were taken. Carcinogenesis was initiated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). One hour before treating with DMBA (200 nmol/100 μl acetone), control and promotion groups were treated with acetone (100 μl) and initiation group with ST (30μg/100μl of acetone). Beginning one week after initiation with DMBA, control and initiation groups were treated with acetone and promotion group with ST (30μg/100μl of acetone), one hour before treating with TPA (5 nmol/100 μl acetone). This was carried out twice a week for the next 20 weeks. The effects of ST on 3H-thymidine incorporation in epidermal DNA, the possible role of apoptotic proteins and COX-2 involved in the prevention of skin tumor development of CD-1 mice were investigated. Tumor incidence and multiplicity was found to be 100%, 73%, 100% and 8.2, 4.8, 9.7 in control, promotion and initiation groups respectively. ST treatment resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in epidermal DNA. The promotion group showed higher levels of caspase-3, -8 and –9 compared to the control. COX-2 expression was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the promotion group as compared to the control. No significant difference in caspase-3, -8, -9 and COX-2 levels were observed in the initiation group compared to control. Together, this study confirms the chemopreventive effects of ST, and for the first time identifies the stage of carcinogenesis at which ST exerts its chemopreventive effect, and elucidates the mechanism possibly by inducing apoptosis and decreasing the COX-2 levels, contributing to its overall cancer chemopreventive effects in the mouse skin cancer model.
Keywords: Cancer chemoprevention; Skin cancer; Sarcoptriol; Apoptosis; COX-2
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Kundoor, V.; Zhang, X.; Khalifa, S.; Fahmy, H.; Dwivedi, C. A Possible Mechanism of Action of the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcotriol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 Mice. Mar. Drugs 2006, 4, 274-285.
Kundoor V, Zhang X, Khalifa S, Fahmy H, Dwivedi C. A Possible Mechanism of Action of the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcotriol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 Mice. Marine Drugs. 2006; 4(4):274-285.
Kundoor, Vipra; Zhang, Xiaoying; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar. 2006. "A Possible Mechanism of Action of the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcotriol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 Mice." Mar. Drugs 4, no. 4: 274-285.