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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 7; doi:10.3390/md16010007

Toxicology of Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) from Tropical and Temperate Australian Waters

1
Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123 Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
2
Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
3
Institute for Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
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Abstract

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a human illness caused by the consumption of marine fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTX) and possibly maitotoxins (MTX), produced by species from the benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus. Here, we describe the identity and toxicology of Gambierdiscus spp. isolated from the tropical and temperate waters of eastern Australia. Based on newly cultured strains, we found that four Gambierdiscus species were present at the tropical location, including G. carpenteri, G. lapillus and two others which were not genetically identical to other currently described species within the genus, and may represent new species. Only G. carpenteri was identified from the temperate location. Using LC-MS/MS analysis we did not find any characterized microalgal CTXs (P-CTX-3B, P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B) or MTX-1; however, putative maitotoxin-3 (MTX-3) was detected in all species except for the temperate population of G. carpenteri. Using the Ca2+ influx SH-SY5Y cell Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR) bioassay we found CTX-like activity in extracts of the unidentified Gambierdiscus strains and trace level activity in strains of G. lapillus. While no detectable CTX-like activity was observed in tropical or temperate strains of G. carpenteri, all species showed strong maitotoxin-like activity. This study, which represents the most comprehensive analyses of the toxicology of Gambierdiscus strains isolated from Australia to date, suggests that CFP in this region may be caused by currently undescribed ciguatoxins and maitotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Benthic Harmful Algal Bloom (BHAB); Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP); Ciguatoxin (CTX); Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR); Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); Maitotoxin (MTX) Benthic Harmful Algal Bloom (BHAB); Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP); Ciguatoxin (CTX); Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR); Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); Maitotoxin (MTX)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Larsson, M.E.; Laczka, O.F.; Harwood, D.T.; Lewis, R.J.; Himaya, S.W.A.; Murray, S.A.; Doblin, M.A. Toxicology of Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) from Tropical and Temperate Australian Waters. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 7.

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