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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 330; doi:10.3390/md15100330

Accumulation and Tissue Distribution of Dinophysitoxin-1 and Dinophysitoxin-3 in the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus Feeding on the Benthic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum foraminosum

1
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Palchevskogo 17, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
2
Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950, Russia
3
V.I. Il’icev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Baltiyskaya 43, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
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Abstract

A DTX-1-producing microalga, Prorocentrum foraminosum, from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan, was fed to Gray’s mussels, Crenomytilus grayanus, for 12 days. An increase in DTX-1 and 7-O-acyl-DTX-1 (DTX-3) was observed in the digestive gland, kidneys, and gills. The digestive gland accumulated 91–100% of DTX-1 + DTX-3; and kidneys and gills accumulated, up to 8.5% and 4.3%, respectively. The kidneys had a distinctive pattern of toxin accumulation where the concentration of DTX-1 did not grow significantly after the eighth day of feeding, indicating the potential of DTX-1 elimination. The digestive gland and gills predominantly accumulated DTX-1, with a dramatic increase between Days 8 and 12. The DTX-3 content was highest in the digestive gland. The composition of DTX-3 in the acyl groups was similar for the digestive gland and kidneys, and did not change during feeding. The total toxin uptake of mussels exceeded the total toxin content from ingested cells by 2.4 times, showing that toxins may have accumulated from the seawater. This assumption needs to be further proved. The muscle, gonads, and mantle remained free of toxins. No genotoxic effect was observed in the gills and digestive gland. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinophysistoxin-1; dinophysistoxin-3; Prorocentrum foraminosum; Crenomytilus grayanus; DSTs accumulation; alkaline comet assay; genotoxicity dinophysistoxin-1; dinophysistoxin-3; Prorocentrum foraminosum; Crenomytilus grayanus; DSTs accumulation; alkaline comet assay; genotoxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kameneva, P.A.; Krasheninina, E.A.; Slobodskova, V.V.; Kukla, S.P.; Orlova, T.Y. Accumulation and Tissue Distribution of Dinophysitoxin-1 and Dinophysitoxin-3 in the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus Feeding on the Benthic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum foraminosum. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 330.

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