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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16010017

Difference in Uptake of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxins into Liver Tissue Slices among Pufferfish, Boxfish and Porcupinefish

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023, Japan
3
Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum “Kaikyokan”, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 750-0036, Japan
4
Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan NIFREL, Suita, Osaka 565-0826, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
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Abstract

Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs) into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic species Takifugu rubripes and non-toxic species Lagocephalus spadiceus, L. cheesemanii and Sphoeroides pachygaster) incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0.99–1.55 µg TTX/mg protein) after 8 h, regardless of the toxicity of the species. In contrast, in liver tissue slices of boxfish (Ostracion immaculatus) and porcupinefish (Diodon holocanthus, D. liturosus, D. hystrix and Chilomycterus reticulatus), TTX content did not increase with incubation time, and was about 0.1 µg TTX/mg protein. When liver tissue slices were incubated with 50 µM STXs for 8 h, the STXs content was <0.1 µg STXs/mg protein, irrespective of the fish species. These findings indicate that, like the toxic species of pufferfish T. rubripes, non-toxic species such as L. spadiceus, L. cheesemanii and S. pachygaster, potentially take up TTX into the liver, while non-toxic boxfish and porcupinefish do not take up either TTX or STXs. View Full-Text
Keywords: pufferfish; boxfish; porcupinefish; tetrodotoxin; saxitoxins; liver tissue slice; in vitro incubation; paralytic shellfish toxins pufferfish; boxfish; porcupinefish; tetrodotoxin; saxitoxins; liver tissue slice; in vitro incubation; paralytic shellfish toxins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Nagashima, Y.; Ohta, A.; Yin, X.; Ishizaki, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Doi, H.; Ishibashi, T. Difference in Uptake of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxins into Liver Tissue Slices among Pufferfish, Boxfish and Porcupinefish. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 17.

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