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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 10; doi:10.3390/md16010010

Eicosanoid Diversity of Stony Corals

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Small-Molecule Bioactive Agents and Therapeutic Targets)
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Oxylipins are well-established lipid mediators in plants and animals. In mammals, arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids control inflammation, fever, blood coagulation, pain perception and labor, and, accordingly, are used as drugs, while lipoxygenases (LOX), as well as cyclooxygenases (COX) serve as therapeutic targets for drug development. In soft corals, eicosanoids are synthesized on demand from AA by LOX, COX, and catalase-related allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase (cAOS-LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase-lipoxygenase (cHPL-LOX) fusion proteins. Reef-building stony corals are used as model organisms for the stress-related genomic studies of corals. Yet, the eicosanoid synthesis capability and AA-derived lipid mediator profiles of stony corals have not been determined. In the current study, the genomic and transcriptomic data about stony coral LOXs, AOS-LOXs, and COXs were analyzed and the eicosanoid profiles and AA metabolites of three stony corals, Acropora millepora, A. cervicornis, and Galaxea fascicularis, were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with MS-MS and a radiometric detector. Our results confirm that the active LOX and AOS-LOX pathways are present in Acropora sp., which correspond to the genomic/sequence data reported earlier. In addition, LOX, AOS-LOX, and COX products were detected in the closely related species G. fascicularis. In conclusion, the functional 8R-LOX and/or AOS-LOX pathways are abundant among corals, while COXs are restricted to certain soft and stony coral lineages. View Full-Text
Keywords: allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase; arachidonic acid; coral; cyclooxygenase; eicosanoids; lipoxygenase allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase; arachidonic acid; coral; cyclooxygenase; eicosanoids; lipoxygenase

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Lõhelaid, H.; Samel, N. Eicosanoid Diversity of Stony Corals. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 10.

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