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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 291; doi:10.3390/md15090291

3-Bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde Enhances the Level of Reduced Glutathione via the Nrf2-Mediated Pathway in Human Keratinocytes

1
Jeju National University School of Medicine and Jeju Research Center for Natural Medicine, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
Ki Cheon Kim and Yu Jae Hyun contributed equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds and Their Biological Actions)
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Abstract

A natural bromophenol found in seaweeds, 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), has been shown to possess antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDB protects skin cells subjected to oxidative stress. The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione-related enzymes and the cell survival of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) was investigated. BDB treatment increased the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione synthesizing enzymes and enhanced the production of reduced glutathione in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, BDB activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and promoted its localization into the nucleus by phosphorylating its up-stream signaling proteins, extracellular signal–regulated kinase and protein kinase B. Thus, BDB increased the production of reduced glutathione and established cellular protection against oxidative stress via an Nrf2-mediated pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; glutathione; oxidative stress; glutathione synthetase; NF-E2 related factor 2 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; glutathione; oxidative stress; glutathione synthetase; NF-E2 related factor 2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.C.; Hyun, Y.J.; Hewage, S.R.K.M.; Piao, M.J.; Kang, K.A.; Kang, H.K.; Koh, Y.S.; Ahn, M.J.; Hyun, J.W. 3-Bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde Enhances the Level of Reduced Glutathione via the Nrf2-Mediated Pathway in Human Keratinocytes. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 291.

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