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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 84; doi:10.3390/md15040084

Establishing the Secondary Metabolite Profile of the Marine Fungus: Tolypocladium geodes sp. MF458 and Subsequent Optimisation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolite Production

1
Hypha Discovery Ltd., Russell Building, Brunel Science Park, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PQ, UK
2
Fraunhofer IME ScreeningPort, Schnackenburgallee 114, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
3
Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR), Am Kiel-Kanal 44, 24106 Kiel, Germany
4
Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Kanzleistr. 91–93, 24943 Flensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Russell Kerr and Paul Long
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Natural Products)
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Abstract

As part of an international research project, the marine fungal strain collection of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR) research centre was analysed for secondary metabolite profiles associated with anticancer activity. Strain MF458 was identified as Tolypocladium geodes, by internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence similarity and its natural product production profile. By using five different media in two conditions and two time points, we were able to identify eight natural products produced by MF458. As well as cyclosporin A (1), efrapeptin D (2), pyridoxatin (3), terricolin A (4), malettinins B and E (5 and 6), and tolypocladenols A1/A2 (8), we identified a new secondary metabolite which we termed tolypocladenol C (7). All compounds were analysed for their anticancer potential using a selection of the NCI60 cancer cell line panel, with malettinins B and E (5 and 6) being the most promising candidates. In order to obtain sufficient quantities of these compounds to start preclinical development, their production was transferred from a static flask culture to a stirred tank reactor, and fermentation medium development resulted in a nearly eight-fold increase in compound production. The strain MF458 is therefore a producer of a number of interesting and new secondary metabolites and their production levels can be readily improved to achieve higher yields. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tolypocladium geodes; tolypocladenol C; NCI60; malettinin B; malettinin E; fermentation development; activity guided purification; anticancer Tolypocladium geodes; tolypocladenol C; NCI60; malettinin B; malettinin E; fermentation development; activity guided purification; anticancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kebede, B.; Wrigley, S.K.; Prashar, A.; Rahlff, J.; Wolf, M.; Reinshagen, J.; Gribbon, P.; Imhoff, J.F.; Silber, J.; Labes, A.; Ellinger, B. Establishing the Secondary Metabolite Profile of the Marine Fungus: Tolypocladium geodes sp. MF458 and Subsequent Optimisation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolite Production. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 84.

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