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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(2), 27; doi:10.3390/md15020027

Marine Antifreeze Proteins: Structure, Function, and Application to Cryopreservation as a Potential Cryoprotectant

1
Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
2
Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Korea
3
Tidal Flat Research Institute, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Gunsan, Jeonbuk 54014, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Abstract

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are biological antifreezes with unique properties, including thermal hysteresis(TH),ice recrystallization inhibition(IRI),and interaction with membranes and/or membrane proteins. These properties have been utilized in the preservation of biological samples at low temperatures. Here, we review the structure and function of marine-derived AFPs, including moderately active fish AFPs and hyperactive polar AFPs. We also survey previous and current reports of cryopreservation using AFPs. Cryopreserved biological samples are relatively diverse ranging from diatoms and reproductive cells to embryos and organs. Cryopreserved biological samples mainly originate from mammals. Most cryopreservation trials using marine-derived AFPs have demonstrated that addition of AFPs can improve post-thaw viability regardless of freezing method (slow-freezing or vitrification), storage temperature, and types of biological sample type. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifreeze proteins; ice-binding proteins; ice recrystallization inhibition; cryoprotectant; slow-freezing; vitrification antifreeze proteins; ice-binding proteins; ice recrystallization inhibition; cryoprotectant; slow-freezing; vitrification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.J.; Lee, J.H.; Hur, Y.B.; Lee, C.W.; Park, S.-H.; Koo, B.-W. Marine Antifreeze Proteins: Structure, Function, and Application to Cryopreservation as a Potential Cryoprotectant. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 27.

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