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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(2), 30; doi:10.3390/md15020030

Biotransformation and Detoxification of Xylidine Orange Dye Using Immobilized Cells of Marine-Derived Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3

1
Bioorganic Chemistry Lab., Chemical Oceanography Division, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403004, Goa, India
2
CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Mumbai 400053, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Roussis
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotransformations Utilizing Marine/Marine-Derived Bacteria and Fungi)
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Abstract

Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3 cell-immobilized beads in natural gel sodium alginate decolorized the xylidine orange dye 1-(dimethylphenylazo)-2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid sodium salt in the laboratory. Optimal conditions were selected for decolorization and the products formed were evaluated for toxicity by disc diffusion assay against common marine bacteria which revealed the non-toxic nature of the dye-degraded products. Decolorization of the brightly colored dye to colorless products was measured on an Ultra Violet-Vis spectrophotometer and its biodegradation products monitored on Thin Layer Chromatographic plate and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Finally, the metabolites formed in the decolorized medium were characterized by mass spectrometry. This analysis confirms the conversion of the parent molecule into lower molecular weight aromatic phenols and sulfonic acids as the final products of biotransformation. Based on the results, the probable degradation products of xylidine orange were naphthol, naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid, 2-6-dihydroxynaphthalene, and bis-dinaphthylether. Thus, it may be concluded that the degradation pathway of the dye involved (a) reduction of its azo group by azoreductase enzyme (b) dimerization of the hydrazo compound followed by (c) degradation of monohydrazo as well as dimeric metabolites into low molecular weight aromatics. Finally, it may be worth exploring the possibility of commercially utilizing L. sphaericus D3 for industrial applications for treating large-scale dye waste water. View Full-Text
Keywords: sponge-associated bacteria; biotechnological application; analytical biotechnology; alginate-immobilized bacteria sponge-associated bacteria; biotechnological application; analytical biotechnology; alginate-immobilized bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Devi, P.; Wahidullah, S.; Sheikh, F.; Pereira, R.; Narkhede, N.; Amonkar, D.; Tilvi, S.; Meena, R.M. Biotransformation and Detoxification of Xylidine Orange Dye Using Immobilized Cells of Marine-Derived Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 30.

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