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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15110333

Krishnolides A–D: New 2-Ketokhayanolides from the Krishna Mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis

1
Marine Drugs Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Government Degree College at Amadala Valasa, Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh 532185, India
3
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou Avenue North, Guangzhou 510515, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract

Four new khayanolide-type limonoids with a 2-carbonyl group, named krishnolides A–D (14), were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis, collected in the mangrove swamp of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh. The relative and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by HR-ESIMS, extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with CuKα radiation, and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Krishnolides A–D are unusual khayanolides containing two large ester substituents of five or four carbon atoms at the C-3 and C-30 positions, respectively. Krishnolide A, containing an 8,14-epoxy group, exhibited moderate anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) activity with an IC50 value of 17.45 ± 1.65 μM and a CC50 value of 78.45 ± 1.69 μM, respectively. This is not only the first report of natural khayanolides from Indian mangroves of the genus Xylocarpus, but also the first report of the anti-HIV activity of khayanolide. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove; Xylocarpus moluccensis; limonoid; khayanolide; anti-HIV mangrove; Xylocarpus moluccensis; limonoid; khayanolide; anti-HIV
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Q.; Satyanandamurty, T.; Shen, L.; Wu, J. Krishnolides A–D: New 2-Ketokhayanolides from the Krishna Mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 333.

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