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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(1), 14; doi:10.3390/md15010014

Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers

Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Jena School for Microbial Communication, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena 07743, Germany
Current address: Algal Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21431, Saudi Arabia.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract

The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva’s chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6). Without this accompanying microbial flora, U. mutabilis forms only callus-like colonies. However, upon addition of the two bacteria species, in effect forming a tripartite community, morphogenesis can be completely restored. Under this strictly standardized condition, bioactive and eco-physiologically-relevant marine natural products can be discovered. Solid phase extracted waterborne metabolites were analyzed using a metabolomics platform, facilitating gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, combined with the necessary acquisition of biological metadata. Multivariate statistics of the GC-MS and LC-MS data revealed strong differences between Ulva’s growth phases, as well as between the axenic Ulva cultures and the tripartite community. Waterborne biomarkers, including glycerol, were identified as potential indicators for algal carbon source and bacterial-algal interactions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that U. mutabilis releases glycerol that can be utilized for growth by Roseovarius sp. MS2. View Full-Text
Keywords: axenic culture; bioreactors; chemosphere; cross-kingdom cross-talk; Maribacter; metabolite profiling; Roseovarius; Ulva axenic culture; bioreactors; chemosphere; cross-kingdom cross-talk; Maribacter; metabolite profiling; Roseovarius; Ulva
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Alsufyani, T.; Weiss, A.; Wichard, T. Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 14.

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