Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity
AbstractChitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells) and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg) ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Ravindranathan, S.; Koppolu, B.P.; Smith, S.G.; Zaharoff, D.A. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 91.
Ravindranathan S, Koppolu BP, Smith SG, Zaharoff DA. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity. Marine Drugs. 2016; 14(5):91.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Koppolu, Bhanu P.; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A. 2016. "Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity." Mar. Drugs 14, no. 5: 91.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.