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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 91; doi:10.3390/md14050091

Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hitoshi Sashiwa and David Harding
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Abstract

Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells) and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg) ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; immunoreactivity; endotoxin; immune response chitosan; immunoreactivity; endotoxin; immune response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ravindranathan, S.; Koppolu, B.P.; Smith, S.G.; Zaharoff, D.A. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 91.

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