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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 89; doi:10.3390/md14050089

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid

1
Aquatic Microbial Ecology Group, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg 26129, Germany
2
Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Neurosciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg 26111, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
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Abstract

The marine environment harbors a plethora of bioactive substances, including drug candidates of potential value in the field of neuroscience. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), produced by several algae, corals and higher plants, on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a and OLN-93 cells as model system for nerve cells and glia, respectively. Additionally, the protective capabilities of DMSP were assessed in cells treated with tropodithietic acid (TDA), a marine metabolite produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria. Both cell lines, N2a and OLN-93, have previously been shown to be a sensitive target for the action of TDA, and cytotoxic effects of TDA have been connected to the induction of oxidative stress. Our data shows that DMSP promotes process outgrowth and microtubule reorganization and bundling, accompanied by an increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, DMSP was able to prevent the cytotoxic effects exerted by TDA, including the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp32 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our study points to the conclusion that DMSP provides an antioxidant defense, not only in algae but also in mammalian neural cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: nerve cells; oligodendrocytes; dimethylsulfoniopropionate; tropodithietic acid; neuroprotection; process outgrowth; Roseobacter clade bacteria nerve cells; oligodendrocytes; dimethylsulfoniopropionate; tropodithietic acid; neuroprotection; process outgrowth; Roseobacter clade bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wichmann, H.; Brinkhoff, T.; Simon, M.; Richter-Landsberg, C. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 89.

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