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Open AccessCommunication
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(10), 193; doi:10.3390/md14100193

Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C2C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype

1
Veterinary Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
2
Laboratory of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
3
Department of Regional Environment, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8551, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kirsten Benkendorff
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Abstract

Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C2C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time. After immunostaining of the formed myotubes with an anti-MHC antibody, we counted the number of nuclei in the myotubes and then calculated the fusion index (FI) as a measure of myotube differentiation. The FI values of all the CS-treated groups were lower than the FI value of the control group, especially the group treated with CS-E, which displayed notable suppression of myotube formation. To confirm that the sugar chain in CS-E is important in the suppression of differentiation, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which catabolizes CS, was added to the media. The addition of ChABC led to the degradation of CS-E, and neutralized the suppression of myotube formation by CS-E. Collectively, it can be concluded that the degree of suppression of differentiation depends on the subtype of CS and that CS-E strongly suppresses myogenic differentiation. We conclude that the CS sugar chain has inhibitory action against myoblast cell fusion. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell fusion; chondroitin sulfate E; chondroitinase ABC; fusion index; myogenesis cell fusion; chondroitin sulfate E; chondroitinase ABC; fusion index; myogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Warita, K.; Oshima, N.; Takeda-Okuda, N.; Tamura, J.-I.; Hosaka, Y.Z. Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C2C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 193.

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